Landscape and Geosites
The Geopark territory is characterized by high geological and geodiversity valences, so it is important to establish a methodology for geosites selection and census. The Plan of the Landscape represents a management tool, in which homogeneous portions of territory have been individualized from lithological, geomorpholocial, stratigraphical and idrographical points of view, and correlated with important and well defined structural elements (Guida et al., 1996). The zoning has been integrated and qualified with further information such as the systems of historical settlements in their articulation (routes and centers) in relationship to the morphology, to the historical matrixes and the relationships with the Cilento territorial context; the systems of meaningful historical-archaeological assets qualifying the area at a local and territorial level; the cultural events linked more or less to the tradition, testimony of the cultural vitality of the territory.The landscape areas are:
- Valle del Calore;
- Valle dell’Alento;
- Vallo di Diano ed i Monti della Maddalena;
- Monti Alburni e la Valle del Tanagro;
- Monte Cervati;
- Monte Bulgheria;
- Monte Chianello - Soprano;
- Monte Motola-Cocuzzo;
- Monte Gelbison;
- Monte Centaurino;
- Monte Stella;
- Monte Vesalo;
- Monte Forcella-Serralunga con il Fiume Bussento;
- Roccagloriosa - Torre Orsaia.
Within each zone the geosites were identified, coded and attributed both the importance and the geologic interest (Aloia et alii 2010-2011). Concerning the importance parameter four hierarchical levels have been defined:
· Main: geosite of particular geologic interest, both as uniqueness/ representativeness at European level, and as didactic-scientific value;
· Focal: geosites to which is associated a real or potential fruition from the point of view of geo-tourism. They are geosites already equipped with structures and explanatory paths or on the way of geo-touristic structuring.
·Complementary: geosites, to which is associated the presence of an archaeological site or human settlements of great historical-architectural value.
· Secondary: geosites of geologic interest at national or regional level.
The geological interest underlines the character of the place, and so what stands out conserves a stratigraphic, geo-morphologic, paleo-environmental, paleoonthologic, structural and hydrogeologic aspect. Actually 40% of these sites has stratigraphic and paleoonthologic interest, and are located both in the mesozoic carbonate mountains and in the coastal hilly areas of the park that are prevailingly made up of sandy-clayey successions of Miocene age.
The sites of geomorphologic interest make up 56% of the geosites. Different kind of geomorphosites are present in the area of the Park: hydrogeological-karst, as karst caves and coastal caves; structural as river karst gorge (superimposed, subseguent and epigenetic); fault scarp; coastal geosites with marine terraces middle and later Pleistocene.
The remaining 4% of the geosites are of hydrogeological interest and are linked with important aquifers present in the territory of the Geopark.